More information about the globally recognized Mountains of Central Asia biodiversity hotspot and different types of ‘protected areas’ (or PAs) in Central Asia, including the wide array of different types of management and governance of PAs, is found at the bottom of this page.
The Mountains of Central Asia are a global biodiversity hotspot, now imminently targeted with CEPF funding. The CEPF has developed an ecosystem profile (summary, visual summary), which will serve as starting point for conservation investments and action in the region. Further information is available on priorities for conservation, species of concern, major threats, and references.
The World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) is the world’s premier network of protected area expertise. It is administered by IUCN‘s Global Programme on Protected Areas and has over 2,500 members, spanning 140 countries. WCPA has a dedicated Mountain Specialist Group focused on Mountain Protected Areas. Mountain Protected Areas (Mountain PA) Updates are available here.
In the IUCN system, the following six Categories of Protected Area (PAs) are recognized: (Ia) strict nature reserve and (Ib) wilderness area; (II) national park; (III) natural monument or feature; (IV) habitat/species management area; (V) protected landscape or seascape; and (VI) protected areas with sustainable use of natural resources.
In addition, IUCN defines four types of Governance of Protected Areas (i.e., who holds authority and responsibility for PAs): (1) governance by government, (2) shared governance, (3) private governance, and (4) governance by indigenous peoples and local communities. IUCN has elaborated a ‘Protected Area Matrix‘ that further clarifies the finer nature of governance types of protected areas.
Indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs), or indigenous peoples’ and community conserved territories and areas, are spaces de facto governed by indigenous peoples or local communities with evidently positive outcomes for the conservation of biocultural diversity. More information about ICCAs can be found at the ICCA Consortium website.
Notably, around one quarter of the world’s land area is owned, used and managed by indigenous peoples, mostly outside of PAs, and in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ICCAs fall within the category of Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures and contribute directly to Target 15 (ecosystem resilience) and Target 16 (Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits) of the CBD’s Aichi Biodiversity Targets.